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In other cases, both the nature and materiality are important, for example, the amounts of inventories held in each of the main categories that are appropriate to the business. Refunds and loyalty scheme accruals Accruals for sales returns and loyalty scheme redemption are estimated on the basis of historical returns and redemptions and these are recorded so as to allocate them to the same period as the original revenue is recorded.

Examples of costs that should be treated as measures of assets are the costs of merchandise on hand at the end of an accounting period, costs of insurance coverage relating to future periods, and the cost of self-constructed plant or equipment. Revenue is to be recognized when it is probable that future economic benefits will flow to the entity and reliable measurement of the amount of the revenue is possible. When the sale is made, however, an outsider, the buyer, has corroborated the estimate of management and a value can now be assigned based on this transaction.

Moderate 30—35 CA Expense recognition principle. There are a multitude of answers possible here. The other concepts provide guidance on 1 identifying the boundaries of financial reporting, 2 selecting the transactions, other events, and circumstances to be represented, 3 how they should be recognized and measured, and 4 how they should be summarized and reported.

GAAP has a concept statement to guide estimation of fair values when market- related data is not available.

Thus, when it is impractical, or impossible, to find a close cause-and-effect relationship between revenue and cost, this acclunting is often assumed to exist. Relevant information helps users to make predictions about the outcomes of past, present, and future events, or to confirm or correct prior expectations.

intermediate accounting ifrs edition volume 2 1st first

Each quality is described briefly below. Consistency refers to a given company following consistent accounting principles from one period to another; it does not refer to a company following the same accounting principles as other companies in the intetmediate industry.

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CA a The various accepted times of recognizing revenue in the accounts are as follows: Decision makers vary widely in the types of decisions they make, how they make decisions, the information they already possess or can obtain from other sources, and their ability to process the information.

Accrual basis In order intermdiate meet their objectives, financial statements are prepared on the accrual basis of accounting. Events that can give rise to recognition of revenue are: In the examination, the auditor concentrates efforts in proportion to degrees of materiality and relative risk and disregards immaterial items.

Intermediate Accounting Ifrs Edition Volume 2 Chapter 16 –

That knowledge, if used with care, may also provide guidance in resolving new or emerging problems of financial accounting and reporting in the absence of applicable authoritative pronouncements. Having relevant information available sooner can enhance its capacity inter,ediate influence decisions, and a lack of timeliness can rob information of its usefulness.

In this case, there appears to be a high uncertainty that the company will have to pay. The student must write a letter on this matter so the case does provide a good writing exercise for the students. Under the circumstances, however, I do not wish to invest in the Neville bonds and would caution accuonting against doing so. Some of these terms have been in use for a long period of time, and their meanings have changed over time.

In this case, the revenue amounts will not be faithful representations and they will lack predictive value not relevant.

Revenue should be recognized when it is probable that future economic benefits will flow to the entity and reliable measurement of the amount of revenue is possible. Enhancing qualitative characteristics are complementary to the fundamental qualitative characteristics.

Faithfully represented information can be depended upon to represent the conditions and events that it is intended to represent.

Financial information is capable of making a difference when it has predictive value, confirmatory value, or both. Therefore, the asset cost is allocated to the accounting periods by some method. As indicated, one element of relevance is predictive value.

Intermediate Accounting Ifrs Edition Volume 2 Chapter 16

Help Center Find new research papers in: Others argue that prediction of future cash flows is more important. The objective indentifies the purpose of financial reporting. Conceptual framework— 1 1, 2 general.

The important concept here is that the incurrence of the cost has resulted in the acquisition of an asset, a future service potential. Examples of expenses that are recognized in a systematic and rational manner are depreciation of plant assets, amortization of intangible assets, and allocation of rent and insurance.


It means that financial statement preparers assume a level of com- petence on the part of users. Comparability enhances comparisons between information about two different companies at a particular point in time.

Production cost includes direct production costs and an appropriate proportion of production overheads and factory depreciation. Possible changes in these estimates could result in revisions to the sales in future periods. Reporting unbiased information must be the overriding consideration. Similar to number 3, concerning forecasted financial statements, if managers report forward- looking information, the company could be exposed to liability if investors unduly rely on the information in making investment decisions.

Faithful representation is a necessity because most users have neither the time nor the expertise to evaluate the factual content of the information. This assumption in accounting indicates that economic activity can be identified with a particular unit of accountability. The objective identifies the purpose of financial reporting. Kunci Jawaban Intermediate Accounting ch 02 weygandt kieso volume 1. As a result companies now have the option to record fair value in their accounts for most financial assets and financial liabilities, including such items as receivables, investments, and debt securities.

Finally, the total revenue is measurable with more than the usual certainty, and the revenue attributable to each crucial event is determinable using reasonable although sometimes conceptually unsatisfactory assumptions about the relationship between revenue and costs when the costs are indirect.

The sale, then, has been adopted because it provides the accountant with objective evidence as to the amount of revenue that will be collected, subject of course to the bad debts estimated to determine ultimate collectibility. Under this approach Nokia must reassess over the life of the contract whether it is probable that future economic benefits will flow to the entity and reliable measurement of the amount of revenue is possible.

Par value is merely an arbitrary amount usually set at the date of incorporation. To be relevant, accounting information must be capable of making a difference in a decision. For example, an expense is usually voluntary, planned, and expected as necessary in the generation of revenue.